top of page


Mozambique's off-grid energy regulation: opportunities for impact

Calanga Solar Minigrid, Mozambique - Credit CPGD

March 16, 2023

As part of the Community Energy and Sustainable Energy Transition (CESET) project in Ethiopia, Malawi and Mozambique, CPGD conducted a study assessing the opportunities and challenges for the uptake of off-grid energy projects in Mozambique. It was conducted in the context of recent regulatory reforms following the approval a new regulation for access to energy in off-grid areas in December 2021. Based on key informant interviews with energy operators, donors and implementing partners, the study finds that the regulation sets the foundation for off-grid energy uptake through increased confidence and investment in both the off-grid energy market and government institutions. However, challenges remain such as the transparency of roles and responsibilities of key government institutions and having appropriate resources in place. Based on the findings, nine policy recommendations are presented. The open access report is available for download here and via the link below.

How is climate change affecting Mozambican citizens?


November 10, 2022

Over the past year, 59% of Mozambicans have been affected by extreme heat; the same percentage affected by storm-related events . This is affecting people’s health, agricultural activities and livelihoods through loss of food, housing and income. It therefore comes as no surprise that 82% of Mozambicans are very concerned about climate change and how it will impact their life and livelihoods in the future. Our policy brief, based on a nationwide public opinion survey, outlines recent experiences of climate change; how citizens have tried to cope with it; their concerns for the future and the actions that either have been taken or, in their view, should be taken to address it. It concludes with policy recommendations for how citizen’s concerns and experiences of climate-related impacts could be better incorporated into national development planning and implementation.

Africa needs context-relevant evidence to shape its clean energy future

Energy Pathways

October 24, 2022

Aligning development and climate goals means Africa’s energy systems will be based on clean energy technologies in the long term, but pathways to get there are uncertain and variable across countries. Although current debates about natural gas and renewables in Africa are heated, they largely ignore the substantial context specificity of the starting points, development objectives and uncertainties of each African country’s energy system trajectory. Here we—an interdisciplinary and majority African group of authors—highlight that each country faces a distinct solution space and set of uncertainties for using renewables or fossil fuels to meet its development objectives. For example, Ethiopia is headed for an accelerated green-growth pathway, but Mozambique is at a crossroads of natural gas expansion with implicit large-scale technological, economic, financial and social risks and uncertainties. We provide geopolitical, policy, finance and research recommendations to create firm country-specific evidence to identify adequate energy system pathways for development and to enable their implementation.

How well do Mozambican legislators represent their citizens concerns?

IDCPPA & DiA - African MPs webinar.jpg

August 2, 2022

On 26 July 2022, CPGD's Carlos Shenga participated in webinar on the theme of 'African MPs: Out of Touch MPs or Put Upon Servants?' hosted by the Institute for Democracy, Citizenship and Public Policy in Africa (IDCPPA) at the University of Cape Town and Democracy in Africa. Joined by other panellists, Anja Osei (Konstanz University) Robert Mattes (University of Strathclyde) Edalina Sanches (University of Lisbon), the webinar explored both descriptive and substantive representation of Africans by their MPs. Carlos' presentation provided an in-depth longitudinal analysis of how well Mozambican legislators represent their citizens' concerns. In addition to highlighting aspects of descriptive representation, he also focused on policy preferences, and provided new insight into how well civil society is able to incorporate inputs to the legislative process. You can watch the webinar recording on IDCPPA's YouTube Channel.


Energy poverty and energy transition
in Mozambique

Energia Para Todos / Energy for All

February 17, 2022

As part of achieving universal energy access by 2030, the Mozambican government expects to double domestic electricity access to 64 per cent by the end of 2024. Whilst quantifying electricity access is important, how households obtain access to electricity and the subsequent reliability and affordability of the supply is equally relevant.


This journal article on The dynamics of urban household energy poverty and energy transition in Mozambique, published in People, Place and Policy as part of the POLARIZE project, provides an in-depth qualitative evaluation of the lived experiences of Mozambicans based on household interviews conducted in Beira, Maputo city, Matola and Nampula city.  

News-Commitment to Democracy

Why are youth concerns marginalised in development planning?

Youth Mozambique

March 18, 2022

Mozambique, like many African countries, has a young and fast growing population, with two-thirds of citizens under 25 years of age. This Policy Brief explores the enabling environment for youth development in the country.  It reveals that there are limited structures or programming that specifically target youth affairs. It recommends that youth issues should be more explicitly embedded in the UN Sustainable Development Goals; and that the government, developing partners and NGOs should tackle youth concerns in their programming by establishing youth advisory positions and formal mechanisms to mainstream and monitor youth concerns in their work.

How has Mozambican's commitment to democracy changed over time?

Commitment to Democracy Mozambique

Electricity Access in Mozambique


Tracking SDG16 progress in Africa

SDG16 Goals

Lessons from qualitative data collection in Mozambique

Data Collection Mozambique

How are freedoms changing in Mozambique?

Freedoms in Mozambique, V-Dem data

July 19, 2021

Commitment to democracy is a multidimensional construct that includes a preference for democracy and a rejection of authoritarian regimes. Evidence from Afrobarometer public opinion surveys between 2002 and 2018 show some variation in Mozambicans' commitment to democracy, but the levels remain relatively low. These results have implications for democratic consolidation, as societies with low levels of commitment to democracy are less likely to consolidate their democracy. Factors behind these levels include, among many, low levels of citizens' access to information (formal education and news media) and their disinterest in public and political affairs. But the way the elections have been carried out contributes significantly.


For more information see these previous articles: Commitment to Democracy in Mozambique: Performance Evaluations and Cognition and The Effect of Electoral Violence on Electoral Participation in Africa.

May 27, 2021

Mozambique is a resource-rich energy hub, yet rural community access to electricity remains low, and urban centres suffer poor service quality. Aging transmission infrastructure, consumer growth, erratic generation, and extreme weather events exacerbate power cuts and oscillations that disrupt household and commercial activities. This paper, published as part of the POLARIZE project, assesses electricity access in Mozambique by taking a critical policy analysis of investment, service reliability and social sustainability. 

December 22, 2020

With a decade of action remaining to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) CPGD has released the first edition of what will be annual progress reports tracking the status of SDG16 on peace, justice and strong institutions in Africa until 2030. 


The SDG16 in Africa: 2020 Report uses V-Dem data, disaggregated by polity, geopolitical region and community for the year of 2019, to assess how African polities are performing to promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels.

October 14, 2020

This Research Note explores some of the unexpected issues that arose during qualitative research data collection for the project ‘A political-economic analysis of electricity grid access histories and futures in Mozambique’ (POLARIZE).  It considers differences in the locations where the fieldwork took place (the cities of Beira, Maputo, Matola and Nampula,) gender of respondents and authority collaboration, and it reflects on the strategies that the researcher adopted to overcome fieldwork challenges.

August 20, 2020

Data from V-Dem shows how different types of freedoms have changed over time. Since adopting the democratic constitution in 1990 and conducting the founding multi-party election in 1994, many types of freedom in Mozambique have seen a dramatic change. The main exception being the freedom to openly discuss political issues in private homes and in public spaces which remains low and, from 2016 to 2019, declined. The freedom from torture also shows lower levels compared with other types of freedoms. Although it improved after democratisation, it declined in 2018 and improved in 2019. Of the selected freedoms, freedom of religion appears to be the most respected.

Does Covid-19 put democracy in Africa at risk?

Covid-19 Democracy Risks Africa

Analysing government performance in service delivery in Africa

Africa Journal of Public Sector Development and Governance

May 4, 2020

This Policy Brief analyses the risks of Covid-19 pandemic emergency measures to democratic standards in Eastern and Southern Africa. It is based on data from the Pandemic Backsliding Risk Index which tracks government responses to Covid-19 and uses V-Dem data to factor in the general risk of democratic declines. The data reveals that of the thirteen countries assessed in Eastern and Southern Africa, at least nine imposed measures that bring a high risk of pandemic backsliding by limiting freedom, the role of the legislature, the role of the judiciary and enforcing pandemic measures abusively and arbitrarily.  

February 7, 2020

CPGD's Working Paper 12 - Analysis of government performance in service delivery in Africa and factors influencing results - has been published in the Africa Journal of Public Sector Development and Governance, a peer-reviewed scholarly journal published by the African Management Development Institutes’ Network (AMDIN).

bottom of page