How has Mozambican's commitment to democracy changed over time?

Commitment to Democracy Mozambique

July 19, 2021

Commitment to democracy is a multidimensional construct that includes a preference for democracy and a rejection of authoritarian regimes. Evidence from Afrobarometer public opinion surveys between 2002 and 2018 show some variation in Mozambicans' commitment to democracy, but the levels remain relatively low. These results have implications for democratic consolidation, as societies with low levels of commitment to democracy are less likely to consolidate their democracy. Factors behind these levels include, among many, low levels of citizens' access to information (formal education and news media) and their disinterest in public and political affairs. But the way the elections have been carried out contributes significantly.


For more information see these previous articles: Commitment to Democracy in Mozambique: Performance Evaluations and Cognition and The Effect of Electoral Violence on Electoral Participation in Africa.

Electricity Access in Mozambique


Tracking SDG16 progress in Africa

SDG16 Goals

Lessons from qualitative data collection in Mozambique

Data Collection Mozambique

How are freedoms changing in Mozambique?

Freedoms in Mozambique, V-Dem data

May 27, 2021

Mozambique is a resource-rich energy hub, yet rural community access to electricity remains low, and urban centres suffer poor service quality. Aging transmission infrastructure, consumer growth, erratic generation, and extreme weather events exacerbate power cuts and oscillations that disrupt household and commercial activities. This paper, published as part of the POLARIZE project, assesses electricity access in Mozambique by taking a critical policy analysis of investment, service reliability and social sustainability. 

December 22, 2020

With a decade of action remaining to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) CPGD has released the first edition of what will be annual progress reports tracking the status of SDG16 on peace, justice and strong institutions in Africa until 2030. 


The SDG16 in Africa: 2020 Report uses V-Dem data, disaggregated by polity, geopolitical region and community for the year of 2019, to assess how African polities are performing to promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels.

October 14, 2020

This Research Note explores some of the unexpected issues that arose during qualitative research data collection for the project ‘A political-economic analysis of electricity grid access histories and futures in Mozambique’ (POLARIZE).  It considers differences in the locations where the fieldwork took place (the cities of Beira, Maputo, Matola and Nampula,) gender of respondents and authority collaboration, and it reflects on the strategies that the researcher adopted to overcome fieldwork challenges.

August 20, 2020

Data from V-Dem shows how different types of freedoms have changed over time. Since adopting the democratic constitution in 1990 and conducting the founding multi-party election in 1994, many types of freedom in Mozambique have seen a dramatic change. The main exception being the freedom to openly discuss political issues in private homes and in public spaces which remains low and, from 2016 to 2019, declined. The freedom from torture also shows lower levels compared with other types of freedoms. Although it improved after democratisation, it declined in 2018 and improved in 2019. Of the selected freedoms, freedom of religion appears to be the most respected.


Does Covid-19 put democracy in Africa at risk?

Covid-19 Democracy Risks Africa

Analysing government performance in service delivery in Africa

Africa Journal of Public Sector Development and Governance
Cabo Delgado Voter Turnout 1994-2014

What issues do voters want political parties to address in Mozambique's 2019 election?

Mozambique Political Party Support CPGD
Rule of Law Mozambique

May 4, 2020

This Policy Brief analyses the risks of Covid-19 pandemic emergency measures to democratic standards in Eastern and Southern Africa. It is based on data from the Pandemic Backsliding Risk Index which tracks government responses to Covid-19 and uses V-Dem data to factor in the general risk of democratic declines. The data reveals that of the thirteen countries assessed in Eastern and Southern Africa, at least nine imposed measures that bring a high risk of pandemic backsliding by limiting freedom, the role of the legislature, the role of the judiciary and enforcing pandemic measures abusively and arbitrarily.  

February 7, 2020

CPGD's Working Paper 12 - Analysis of government performance in service delivery in Africa and factors influencing results - has been published in the Africa Journal of Public Sector Development and Governance, a peer-reviewed scholarly journal published by the African Management Development Institutes’ Network (AMDIN).

August 28, 2019

This Compendium analyses and compares voter turnout and party competition of all Mozambique national legislative elections longitudinally from the founding multiparty election in 1994 to the most recent in 2014. It does so using official data from electoral institutions at district level. It investigates the levels of voter turnout; how voter turnout changed from election to election; the levels of party competition; and how party competition varied over time.

July 11, 2019

What do Mozambican voters want political parties to address regarding the economy, health, politics, public services, infrastructure and agriculture in their 2019 election manifestos?


Find out from our infographic series based on the findings of a nationwide study of 30 focus groups conducted by CPGD in partnership with NDI.

June 10, 2019

How might long and short-term factors influence the way Mozambican’s vote in the October 2019 election?  CPGD Briefing Paper 7 considers the long-term influence of voters’ party identification, the short term influences of performance of the president and trust in the incumbent and opposition parties as well as voter intention to try to predict the outcome of the election. While the Paper's evidence suggests that the incumbent party Frelimo and its candidate, Filipe Nyusi, has a good prospect of being re-elected, that evidence is discussed considering other accounts. The paper also reflects on ethnic cleavage and the role it may play in the forthcoming election.

May 20, 2019

What factors affect government performance in delivering public services? CPGD Working Paper 12 analyses government performance in service delivery in 35 countries in Africa using Afrobarometer public opinion data. The evidence shows that the government act of providing services in Africa tends to be shallow and that performance is mainly explained by three factors: the status of the economy, corruption and, to some extent, the effectiveness of the media.

February 28, 2019

This study evaluates the rule of law covering more than a decade of performance of Mozambique electoral democracy using Afrobarometer public opinion data and an initial exploration of expert opinion data from the Worldwide Governance Indicators. The report provides a valuable baseline study to monitor the performance of Sustainable Development Goal 16 (Peace, Justice and Strong Institutions) in Mozambique. The study reveals that demand and supply of the rule of law in the country is widespread but low and declining. Mozambicans are likely to demand for the rule of law and view that they are being supplied with the rule of law in 22 (63 percent) out of 35 indicators. However the likelihood is of shallow levels and levels declining over time.